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Biogenic calcium phosphate transformation in soils over millennial time scales

TitleBiogenic calcium phosphate transformation in soils over millennial time scales
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsLehmann, Johannes, Sato Shinjiro, Neves Eduardo G., Solomon Dawit, and Liang Biqing
JournalJournal of Soils and Sediments
Volume3
Issue3
Pagination194 - 205
Date Published06/2009
Abstract

Changes in bioavailability of phosphorus (P) during pedogenesis and ecosystem development have been shown for geogenic calcium phosphate (Ca-P). However, very little is known about long-term changes of biogenic Ca-P in soil. Long-term transformation characteristics of biogenic Ca-P were examined using anthropogenic soils along a chronosequence from centennial to millennial time scales. Phosphorus fractionation of Anthrosols resulted in overall consistency with the Walker and Syers model of geogenic Ca-P transformation during pedogenesis. The biogenic Ca-P (e.g., animal and fish bones) disappeared to 3% of total P within the first ca. 2,000 years of soil development. This change concurred with increases in P adsorbed on metal-oxides surfaces, organic P, and occluded P at different pedogenic time. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that the crystalline and therefore thermodynamically most stable biogenic Ca-P was transformed into more soluble forms of Ca-P over time. While crystalline hydroxyapatite (34% of total P) dominated Ca-P species after about 600-1,000 years, beta-tricalcium phosphate increased to 16% of total P after 900-1,100 years, after which both Ca-P species disappeared. Iron-associated P was observable concurrently with Ca-P disappearance. Soluble P and organic P determined by XANES maintained relatively constant (58-65%) across the time scale studied. Disappearance of crystalline biogenic Ca-P on a time scale of a few thousand years appears to be ten times faster than that of geogenic Ca-P.