|Title||Efficiency of Poultry Manure Biochar for Stabilization of Metals in Contaminated Soil|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Lim, Jung Eun, Lee Sang Soo, and Ok Yong Sik|
|Journal||Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry|
|Pagination||39 - 50|
Stabilization of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu was evaluated in contaminated soil treated with poultry manure (PM) as well as its biochars pyrolyzed at 300°C (PBC300) and 700°C (PBC700) at the application rates of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 wt% along with the control, prior to 21-days incubation. After incubation, soil pH was increased from 6.94 (control) to 7.51, 7.24, and 7.88 in soils treated with PM 10 wt%, PBC300 10 wt%, and PBC700 10 wt% treatments, respectively, mainly due to alkalinity of treatments. In the soil treated with PM, the concentrations of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)-extractable Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu were increased by up to 408, 77, 24, and 955%, respectively, compared to the control. These increases may possibly be associated with an increased dissolved organic carbon concentration by the PM addition. However, in the soil treated with PBC700, TCLP-extractable Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations were reduced by up to 23, 38, 52, and 36%, respectively, compared to the control. Thermodynamic modelling using the visual MINTEQ was done to predict the precipitations of Pb(OH)2, Cu(OH)2 and P-containing minerals, such as chloropyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3Cl] and hydroxypyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3OH], in the PBC700 10 wt% treated soil. The SEM-elemental dot mapping analysis further confirmed the presence of Pb-phosphate species via dot mapping of PBC700 treated soil. These results indicate that the reduction of Pb concentration in the PBC700 treated soil is related to the formations of chloropyromorphite and hydroxypyromorphite which have very low solubility.