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生物炭对华北高产农田土壤碳和作物产量的影响 [Impact of biochar on soil carbon and crop yield productive farmland in North China]

Title生物炭对华北高产农田土壤碳和作物产量的影响 [Impact of biochar on soil carbon and crop yield productive farmland in North China]
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
Authors鲁宁-Luning
Journal中国农业科学院 2014年 [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences 2014]
Abstract

生物炭(biochar)在土壤碳截留、温室气体减排及土壤质量改良等方面均具有潜在作用。由于影响生物炭效应的因素很多,如生物炭来源、生物炭性质、土 壤类型、作物、施肥等,特别是当前生物炭效应缺乏长期定位试验研究,生物炭对土壤碳库和作物产量影响的长期效应尚缺乏深入研究,且存在一定不确定性。本研 究基于华北高产农田连续施用生物炭5年的定位试验,监测了2012/6-2013/6期间夏玉米-冬小麦季土壤呼吸和活性有机碳库,并补充监测了2013 /6-2013/10夏玉米季作物根际呼吸的变化情况,分析了2011-2013年不同处理作物产量,以期揭示大田条件下连续施用生物炭对土壤碳截留的影 响和作物产量的影响。田间定位试验布置于2007年,位于山东桓台华北集约农业生态系统试验站,设CK(单施化肥)、BC4.5(施用化肥+生物炭 4.5t ha-1yr-1)、BC9.0(施用化肥+生物炭9.0t ha-1yr-1)和SR(施用化肥+秸秆还田)四个处理。种植制度为小麦玉米轮作,土壤类型为砂姜潮湿雏形土。土壤呼吸速率(Rs)及表层土壤温度和土 壤含水量(0-5cm)利用土壤碳通量自动测量系统Li-8100A测定,土壤微生物量碳(MBC)采用氯仿熏蒸法测定,土壤易氧化碳(ROC)采用高锰 酸钾氧化法测定,土壤热水溶性(HWC)有机碳用80°C水浴法提取,土壤黑碳(BC)采用重铬酸钾氧化法去除有机碳然后用TOC分析仪测定。主要结论如 下: (1)各处理Rs均具有明显的昼夜和季节变化特征。冬小麦季各处理Rs的季节波动(季节变异系数65.1~74.8%)高于夏玉米季(季节变异系数 48.4~53.4%)。与CK处理相比,BC4.5、BC9.0和SR处理对冬小麦及夏玉米季Rs季节变异系数均无显著影响(P0.05)。研究期 间,CK、BC4.5、BC9.0和SR处理累积土壤呼吸通量分别为26.64、27.63、27.80、33.11t CO-2ha1,BC4.5、BC9.0处理对夏玉米季及冬小麦季土壤呼吸通量均无显著影响(P0.05)。SR处理在冬小麦季土壤呼吸通量显著高于CK 处理(P0.05)。BC4.5、BC9.0和SR处理对玉米根际呼吸通量均无显著影响(P0.05),对玉米根际呼吸占土壤呼吸的比例也均无显著影响 (P0.05)。 各处理Rs与土壤温度之间存在极显著的指数相关性(P0.01),各处理夏玉米季土壤呼吸温度敏感性Q10值(3.64-4.20)均高于冬小麦季 (2.60-3.17),同时在夏玉米季不同处理间Q10差异不显著(P0.05),SR处理在冬小麦季Q10显著高于BC4.5、BC9.0和CK处理 (P0.05)。各处理Rs与土壤湿度呈极显著的负相关关系(P0.01)。 (2)BC4.5和BC9.0显著增加了土壤MBC和ROC含量(P0.05),对HWC的影响不显著(P0.05)。SR处理显著增加土壤MBC、 ROC、HWC等活性有机碳库的碳含量(P0.05)。各处理活性有机碳库碳含量均具有明显的季节动态波动。其中土壤MBC季节波动(季节变异系数 35.3-46.0%)高于ROC(季节变异系数27.4-24.9%)和HWC季节(季节变异系数17.8-29.2%)。BC4.5、BC9.0和 SR处理对土壤MBC的季节变异均无显著影响(P0.05),但均显著降低土壤ROC季节波动的作用(P0.05),同时SR处理显著增加了土壤HWC的 季节波动(P0.05),BC4.5、BC9.0对土壤HWC的季节波动没有显著影响(P0.05)。施用生物炭显著提高了土壤BC和有机碳(SOC)含 量(P0.05),并且土壤BC和SOC含量随生物炭施用量的增加而增加。BC4.5处理和BC9.0处理与CK相比,土壤BC含量分别增加180%和 337%,土壤SOC分别提高19.7%和60.7%。 (3)BC4.5、BC9.0和SR处理对玉米和小麦实际产量及平均亩穗数均无显著影响(P0.05)。在2012/6-2012/10玉米 季,BC9.0和SR处理玉米穗粒数显著高于CK处理(P0.05);在2012/10-2013/6冬小麦季,BC9.0和SR处理小麦千粒重显著高于 CK处理(P0.05),其他时期不同处理间玉米和小麦穗粒数、千粒重均无显著差异(P0.05)。 研究结果表明,在华北高产农田连续5年施用生物炭虽未显著增加作物产量,但也没有降低作物的产量。在维持高产的前提下,生物炭还田显著增加了农田土壤有机 碳和黑碳含量,而对土壤呼吸排放通量并没有显著影响,即显著增加了土壤碳截留。Biochar (biochar) all have a potential role in soil carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and improve soil quality and other aspects. Effects due to many factors biochar, such as biochar sources biochar properties, soil type, crop, fertilizer, etc., especially in the current lack of long-term effects of biochar experiment of biochar on soil carbon stocks and crop yield long-term lack of in-depth study of the effect, and there is some uncertainty. Based on this study, high-yield farmland north of continuous application of biochar five-year experiment to monitor the 2012 / 6-2013 / 6 during the summer maize - winter wheat soil respiration and active organic carbon pool season and added to monitor the 2013 / 6-2013 / 10 summer maize crop rhizosphere respiration changes, and analyzes the different treatment 2011-2013 crop yields under field conditions in order to reveal the effects of continuous application of biochar affect crop yield and soil carbon sequestration of. Field experiment was arranged in 2007, is located in Shandong Huantai North intensive agro-ecosystems Experimental Station, located CK (chemical fertilizer), BC4.5 (biochar fertilizer + 4.5t ha-1yr-1), BC9.0 (biochar fertilizer + 9.0t ha-1yr-1) and SR (fertilizer + straw) four processing. Cropping systems for wheat and corn crop rotation, soil type shajiang wet Cambosols. Soil respiration rate (Rs) and surface soil temperature and soil moisture (0-5cm) use of soil carbon flux measurement system Li-8100A automatic measurement, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) was determined by chloroform fumigation, soil easily carbon dioxide (ROC) was determined by potassium permanganate oxidation, soil thermal water soluble (HWC) organic carbon with 80 ° C water bath method of extraction, soil black carbon (BC) using potassium dichromate oxidation method to remove organic carbon and then use the TOC analyzer . The main conclusions are as follows: (a) Rs treatments have obvious diurnal and seasonal variation. Winter wheat Rs seasonal fluctuations in each treatment (seasonal coefficient of variation of 65.1 ~ 74.8%) higher than summer corn season (seasonal coefficient of variation of 48.4 ~ 53.4%​​). Compared with CK treatment, BC4.5, BC9.0 and SR treatment on winter wheat and summer maize Rs seasonal coefficient of variation had no significant effect (P0.05). During the study period, CK, BC4.5, BC9.0 and SR treatment accumulation of soil respiration fluxes were 26.64,27.63,27.80,33.11t CO-2ha1, BC4.5, BC9.0 handling of summer maize and winter wheat soil There was no significant effect on respiration fluxes (P0.05). SR treatment was significantly higher than in winter wheat CK treatment (P0.05) soil respiration fluxes. BC4.5, BC9.0 and SR treatment on maize rhizosphere respiration fluxes were not significantly affected (P0.05), maize rhizosphere respiration proportion of total soil respiration had no significant effect (P0.05). Rs exists between each treatment and soil temperature significantly exponential correlation (P0.01), each soil respiration temperature sensitivity Q10 summer maize value (3.64-4.20) were higher than winter wheat (2.60-3.17), while between different treatment Q10 summer maize was not significantly different (P0.05), SR treatment in winter wheat Q10 significantly higher BC4.5, BC9.0 and CK treatment (P0.05). Rs and soil moisture treatments showed significant negative correlation (P0.01). (2) BC4.5 and BC9.0 significantly increased soil MBC and ROC content (P0.05), the impact on the HWC was not significant (P0.05). A significant increase in the carbon content of the soil MBC, ROC, HWC and other active organic carbon pool (P0.05) SR treatment. Each treatment active organic carbon pool carbon content were significant seasonal dynamic fluctuations. Where the soil MBC seasonal fluctuations (seasonal coefficient of variation 35.3-46.0%) than ROC (seasonal coefficient of variation 27.4-24.9%) and HWC season (season coefficient of variation 17.8-29.2%). BC4.5, BC9.0 and SR treatment of seasonal variation on soil MBC had no significant effect (P0.05), but were significantly lower seasonal fluctuations in soil ROC role (P0.05), while SR treatment significantly increased soil HWC seasonal fluctuations (P0.05), BC4.5, BC9.0 no significant effect on the seasonal fluctuations of soil HWC (P0.05). Application of biochar significantly increased soil organic carbon and BC (SOC) content (P0.05), and BC and SOC content of the soil increases with biochar application rate. BC4.5 processing and BC9.0 treatment compared with CK, soil BC content increased 180% and 337%, respectively, soil SOC increased 19.7% and 60.7%. (3) BC4.5, BC9.0 and SR treatment on the actual yield and the average acres of corn and wheat spike had no significant effect (P0.05). In 2012 / 6-2012 / 10 corn season, BC9.0 and SR processing corn grain number is significantly higher than CK treatment (P0.05); in 2012 / 10-2013 / 6 winter wheat season, BC9.0 and SR processing wheat grain weight was significantly higher than that of CK treatment (P0.05), other times different number of processing corn and wheat grain, grain weight were not significantly different (P0.05). The results showed that application of biochar for five consecutive years in the North, although not a significant increase in high-yield farmland crop yields, but did not reduce crop yields. Under the premise of maintaining high yield biochar to field a significant increase in farmland soil organic carbon and black carbon content, and soil respiration fluxes and no significant effect, namely a significant increase in soil carbon sequestration.]

URLhttp://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-82101-1014326808.htm