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添加木炭改善猪粪稻壳好氧堆肥工艺及质量 (Improving pig manure and rice husk compost technology and quality by wood charcoal addition)

Title添加木炭改善猪粪稻壳好氧堆肥工艺及质量 (Improving pig manure and rice husk compost technology and quality by wood charcoal addition)
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
Authors李荣华-Ronghua, 张广杰-ZhangGuangjie, 张增强-ANS, 王权-Royalty, and Xining 孙西宁-Sun
JournalAgricultural Engineering
Abstract

为促进农业废弃物的资源化利用,试验以猪粪和稻壳为原料,用化学分析和仪器分析相结合的方法,研究了添加不同质 量分数(0、2.5%、5.0%、7.5% 和10.0%)的木炭对60 d猪粪好氧堆肥过程的影响。结果表明:在堆肥有机质的降解过程中,含-OH、-CH3和-CH2基团的化合物的质量分数逐渐减少,含-C=O、C-O- C、-COO基团和含芳香环类物质的质量分数逐渐增加。添加木炭能促使堆肥物料的降解,随着木炭添加量的增加,在60 d的堆肥过程中,各处理有机碳的质量分数分别降低了12.23%、13.77%、14.88%、15.36%和15.86%,碳氮比分别下降了 47.80%、54.98%、56.97%、60.03%和65.73%。与对照相比,添加木炭可延长堆肥高温期的停留时间3~ 5 d,增加堆肥物料的持水能力并降低堆肥产品的电导率;同时,添加木炭还能减少堆肥初期氨气的挥发,提高铵态氮的质量分数,促使堆肥后期硝态氮的转化。堆肥 结束时,添加木炭可使硝态氮的质量分数提高55.86%~89.32%,总氮的质量分数提高20.55%~53.07%,雪里蕻种子发芽率提高 17.6%~41.2%,萌发指数达1.02~1.44。研究表明,添加木炭能促进堆肥有机物料的降解,加快堆肥腐熟脱毒,增加堆肥产品总氮的质量分数, 提高产品质量。木炭作为一种潜在的猪粪堆肥添加剂,在促进农业废弃物资源化利用方面具有广阔的应用前景。 (In order to promote waste recycling and investigate the effect of hardwood-based biochar additives in the process of pig manure composting, the pig manure was mixed with rice husk and further amended with oak wood charcoal at 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10.0% in dry weight before being aerobically composted for 60 days. The parameters, such as temperature, water content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon, C/N ratio, total nitrogen, NH4+-N, NO3--N, NH3, etc., were detected through chemical analysis. The organic matter degradation process was evaluated by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) methods. The FTIR analysis showed that the contents of the compounds with -OH, -CH3, and -CH2 groups decreased with time, while the contents of the compounds with -C=O, C-O-C, -COO, and aromatic groups increased with time during the 60 days of composting. The compost sample SEM analysis proved that the mixture particle size decreased with the progress of time and the amount of wood charcoal. During the 60 days composting, as the wood charcoal addition amount increased, the organic carbon contents in all the treatments decreased 12.23%, 13.77%, 14.88%, 15.36%, and 15.86%, respectively; the C/N ratio decreased 47.80%, 54.98%, 56.97%, 60.03%, and 65.73%, respectively. Compared to the control, the addition of wood charcoal had no significant effect on pH variation, and the final compost pH kept the balance at 8.0. Wood charcoal addition extended high-temperature processing times by 2-5 days, increased the water contents, and decreased the EC value during composting. During the 60 days composting, as the wood charcoal addition amount increased, the moisture content decreased 15.9%, 13.0%, 11.1%, 10.1%, and 7.8%, respectively; while the EC value in the wood charcoal added treatment were decreased 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 mS/cm than that of the control, respectively. Addition of oak wood charcoal additives could enhance the organic matter degradation during the composting. Wood charcoal addition increased the NH4+-N concentration at the beginning composting stage and the NO3--N concentration at the later composting stage. Compared to the control, after 60 days of composting the final NO3--N concentrations in charcoal adding treatments increased 55.86%-89.32%, the final total nitrogen concentrations in charcoal adding treatments increased 20.55%-53.07%, and the total nitrogen contents in the final compost were nearly 14.92, 16.69, 17.32, 18.05, and 18.53 g/kg, respectively. The addition of wood charcoal had no significant effect on potherb mustard (Ardisiasquamulosapresl) germination but had a positive effect on the germination index evolution. The potherb mustard germination index values increased with composting time and were higher in the wood charcoal adding treatments than in the control. After 60 days of composting, the potherb mustard germination rate increased 17.6%-41.2% and germination index ranged from 1.02 to 1.44 in the charcoal adding treatments. The potherb mustard germination index value variation proved that the addition of wood charcoal in pig manure composting favors the detoxication of the compost. The study implicated that adding wood charcoal in pig manure compost could accelerate the composting maturity, reduce nitrogen loss, and improve the quality of compost. Wood charcoal was a potential additive in pig manure composting.)

URLhttp://www.tcsae.org/nygcxb/ch/reader/view_abstract.aspx?file_no=20141630