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Recycling slaughterhouse waste into fertilizer: how do pyrolysis temperature and biomass additions affect phosphorus availability and chemistry?

TitleRecycling slaughterhouse waste into fertilizer: how do pyrolysis temperature and biomass additions affect phosphorus availability and chemistry?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsZwetsloot, Marie J., Lehmann Johannes, and Solomon Dawit
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Abstract
Background
Pyrolysis of slaughterhouse waste could promote more sustainable phosphorus (P) usage through the development of alternative P fertilizers. This study investigated how pyrolysis temperature (220, 350, 550 and 750°C), rendering before pyrolysis, and wood or corn biomass additions affect P chemistry in bone char, plant availability, and its potential as P fertilizer.
 
Results
Linear combination fitting of synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra demonstrated that higher pyrolysis temperatures decreased the fit with organic P references, but increased the fit with a hydroxyapatite (HA) reference – used as indicator of high calcium phosphate (CaP) crystallinity. The fit to the HA reference increased from 0 to 69% in bone with meat residue and from 20 to 95% in rendered bone. Biomass additions to the bone with meat residue reduced the fit to the HA reference by 83% for wood and 95% for corn, and additions to rendered bone by 37% for wood. No detectable aromatic P forms were generated by pyrolysis. High CaP crystallinity was correlated with low water-extractable P, but high formic acid-extractable P indicative of high plant availability. Bone char supplied available P which was only 24% lower than Triple Superphosphate fertilizer and two- to five-fold higher than rock phosphate.
 
Conclusion
Pyrolysis temperature and biomass additions can be used to design P fertilizer characteristics of bone char through changing CaP crystallinity that optimize P availability to plants.
URLhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.6716/abstract
DOI10.1002/jsfa.6716