|Title||Speciation and phytoavailability of lead and antimony in a small arms range soil amended with mussel shell, cow bone and biochar: EXAFS spectroscopy and chemical extractions|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Ahmad, Mahtab, Lee Sang Soo, Lim Jung Eun, Lee Sung-Eun, Cho Ju Sik, Moon Deok Hyun, Hashimoto Yohey, and Ok Yong Sik|
Mussel shell (MS), cow bone (CB) and biochar (BC) were selected to immobilize metals in an army firing range soil. Amendments were applied at 5% (wt) and their efficacies were determined after 175 d. For metal phytoavailability test, maize (Zea mays L.) plants were cultivated for 3 weeks. Results showed that all amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb by up to 99% in planted/unplanted soils. Contrarily, exchangeable Sb were increased in the MS- and CB-amended soils. The rise in soil pH (~1 unit) by the amendments affected Pb and Sb mobility in soils. Bioavailability of Pb to maize was reduced by up to 71% in the amended soils. The Sb uptake to maize was decreased by up to 53.44% in the BC-amended soil. Sequential chemical extractions showed the transformation of easily available Pb to stable residual form with the amendment treatments. Scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping revealed the Pb association with Al and Si in the MS-amended soil and that with P in the CB- and BC-amended soils. Additionally, the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis indicated the transformation of organic bound Pb in unamended control soil to relatively more stable Pb-hydroxide (Ksp = 10-17.1), chloropyromorphite (Ksp = 10-84.4) and Pb-phosphate (Ksp = 10-23.8) in soils amended with MS, CB and BC, respectively. Application of BC was the best in decreasing the phytoavailability of Pb and Sb in the studied army firing range soil.