|Title||Effects of biochar, cow bone, and eggshell on Pb availability to maize in contaminated soil irrigated with saline water|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Almaroai, Yaser A., Jo Adel UsmanYoung Kyoo R. A., Ahmad Mahtab, Moon Deok Hyun, Cho Ju-Sik, Joo Young Kyoo, Jeon Choong, Lee Sang Soo, and Ok Yong Sik|
|Journal||Environmental Earth Sciences|
Toxicity of heavy metals adversely affects environment and human health. Organic materials derived from natural matters or wastes have been applied to soils to reduce the mobility of contaminants such as heavy metals. However, the application of cow bone powder (CB), biochar (BC), and eggshell powder (ES) is rarely investigated for the reduction of Pb bioavailability in soils irrigated with saline water. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of CB, BC, and ES additions as immobilizing substances on Pb bioavailability in shooting range soil irrigated with deionized and saline water. Each additive of CB, BC, and ES at 5 % (w/w) was mixed with soils and then the deionized and saline water were irrigated for 21 days. With deionized water irrigation, the soils treated with CB, BC, and ES exhibited higher pH when compared with saline water irrigation. With saline water irrigation, the electrical conductivity, water-soluble anions, and cations were significantly increased in soils treated with CB, BC, and ES. The water-soluble Pb in soils treated with CB, BC, and ES was significantly decreased with saline water irrigation. On the other hand, the water-soluble Pb in soil treated with CB was increased with deionized water irrigation. Only BC with saline water irrigation decreased the Pb concentration in maize shoots.